Most of the different architectural styles from the colonial period to the early 20th century are represented in the houses and buildings found in the old village of Groton Bank.
The following description of Colonial architecture was published in 1928 by in the Home Builders Catalog:
"The Colonial architecture is more closely associated with American history and traditions than any other type of architecture. A brief review of the famous dwellings to which Americans look with pride will show them to one Colonial style or another. So closely has the Colonial home been interwoven with American Life that it is only within recent years that a family of culture would consider anything else. Nor must we think that all houses looked alike, for in its wide and extensive use different kinds of Colonial houses developed. Colonial houses flourished in New England, in New York, in Virginia and the South and in the North under diverse climates and conditions. As necessity is the mother of architecture, it was inevitable that Colonial architecture should develop along various lines."
Many homes of the successful Groton Bank whaling captains were Greek Revival
"Like much of America's architecture, the Federal (or Federalist) style has its roots in the British Isles. Two Scottish brothers named Adam adapted the pragmatic Georgian style, adding swags, garlands, urns, and other delicate details. In the American colonies, homes and public buildings also took on graceful airs. Inspired by the work of the Adam brothers and also by the great temples of ancient Greece and Rome, Americans began to build homes with Palladian windows, circular or elliptical windows, recessed wall arches, and oval-shaped rooms. This new Federal style became associated with America's evolving national identity.
It's easy to confuse Federalist architecture with the earlier Georgian Colonial style. The difference is in the details: While Georgian homes are square and angular, a Federal style building is more likely to have curved lines and decorative flourishes. Federalist architecture was the favored style in the United States from about 1780 until the 1830s. However, Federalist details are often incorporated into modern American homes. Look past the vinyl siding, and you may see a fanlight or the elegant arch of a Palladian window. "
This style has several variations, - Italianate, Carpenter Gothic, French Mansard, Cottage Style, Stick Style, Queen Anne
In contrast to the other Victorian-era architectural styles, Shingle style de-emphasized applied decoration and detailing in favor of complex shapes wrapped in cedar shingles. Its few decorative details tended to enhance the irregularity of the construction with the shingles tying the diverse forms together.
Old English homes were much smaller and more streamlined then the large Tudor-style country residences that appeared in the late 19th century that echoed medieval English styles . Characteristics commonly incorporated included the steeply pitched roof and cross-gables, large stone or brick chimneys often at the front of the house, and small-paned bands of casement windows. Entry facades were often front-facing gables with a swooped roof that was steep and straight on one side and carefully curved on the other. Doorways were often arched or half-round with ornate hardware and exterior lighting.
The characteristic exterior features of the Tudor style as used in secular architecture are: a lavish use of half-timber work; large groups of rectangular windows; rich oriel, or bay, windows; complex roofs with many gables; interesting and sometimes fantastic chimney treatments; and much brickwork, frequently in patterns.
Named after architect Henry Hobson Richardson (1838–1886), whose masterpiece is Trinity Church in Boston. It is also evident in the New London Amtrak train station and the Public Library of New London. This very free revival style incorporates 11th and 12th century southern French, Spanish and Italian Romanesque characteristics. It emphasizes clear, strong picturesque massing, round-headed "Romanesque" arches, often springing from clusters of short ,squat columns, recessed entrances, richly varied rustification, blank stretches of walling contrasting with bands of windows, and cylindrical towers with conical caps embedded in the walling.
Colonial Revival style homes were extremely popular from 1900 to 1950. After the first centennial of the American Revolution in 1876, a new awareness of traditional architectural forms appeared across the US. From 1920 until mid-century, this architectural style with its variants was the most popular home style in the US. With its simple elegant lines and traditional form, it continues to be one of America’s favorite house styles.
Neoclassical architecture is a revival of Classical architecture during the 18th and early 19th centuries. The movement concerned itself with the logic of entire Classical volumes, unlike Classical revivalism, which tended to reuse Classical parts. Neoclassical architecture is characterized by grandeur of scale, simplicity of geometric forms, Greek—especially Doric — or Roman detail, dramatic use of columns, and a preference for blank walls.